Deepsea mining and the law of the sea

by Alexandra Merle Post

Publisher: M. Nijhoff Publishers, Publisher: Distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Kluwer Boston in The Hague, Boston, Hingham, MA, USA

Written in English
Cover of: Deepsea mining and the law of the sea | Alexandra Merle Post
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  • Ocean mining.,
  • Law of the sea.

Edition Notes

Bibliography: p. 329-358.

StatementAlexandra Merle Post.
SeriesPublications on ocean development ;, v. 8
LC ClassificationsTN291.5 .P67 1983
The Physical Object
Paginationxxiii, 358 p. :
Number of Pages358
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL3492693M
ISBN 10902473049X
LC Control Number82012559

Deep-sea mining is likely to result in biodiversity loss, and the significance of this to ecosystem function is not known. “Out of kind” biodiversity offsets substituting one ecosystem type (e.g., coral reefs) for another (e.g., abyssal nodule fields) have been proposed to compensate for such loss. Here we consider a goal of no net loss (NNL) of biodiversity and explore the challenges of. Deep seabed mining could have serious impacts on the ocean environment and the future livelihoods and wellbeing of coastal communities. Only 3% of the oceans are protected and less than 1% of the high seas 7, making them some of the least protected places on emerging threat of seabed mining is an urgent wake-up call: the world’s governments must act now to protect the high seas.   Mining could devastate fragile ecosystems that are slow to recover in the highly pressurised darkness of the deep sea, as well as having knock .   Once thought too expensive and too difficult, commercial scale mining of the deep sea is poised to become a reality as early as But scientists warn reaching rare minerals on and under the sea floor could cause irreversible damage to an environment that is still poorly understood.

  The Deep Sea Mining campaign, which is a member of the Deep Sea Conservation Coalition, a group of more than 80 nongovernmental organizations, calls for a moratorium on deep-sea mining, including. The international forum for deep sea mining professionals. As we move into an era of mining the deep-ocean floor, the world’s most remote environment, mining companies are working on overcoming the perceived challenges and developing island nations are watching with interest. He is the editor of the book on 'Deep-sea mining: resource potential, technical and environmental considerations' published by Springer in and has undertaken several assignments for international research organizations, academic institutions and the International Seabed Authority. Deep sea mining sites are usually around polymetallic nodules (aka manganese nodules, whose core can become manganese, and around which is manganese/iron hydroxides, in the abyss) or active/extinct hydrothermal vents. Vents create globular or massive sulphide deposits which contain valuable metals (silver, copper, gold, cobalt, zinc).

Definition of offshore: PNG Mining Act • land includes– • the offshore area being the seabed underlying the territorial sea from the mean low water springs level of the sea to such depth as admits of exploration for or mining of minerals; UN Law of the Sea Convention permits PNG to regulate mining to the extent of Continental Shelf ( nm or more). But like the gold rushes of old, the deep-sea-mining industry is emerging on the frontiers of society, far from legislatures and law enforcement. Officially, the nascent deep-sea-mining industry is governed by the International Seabed Authority (ISA), an intergovernmental organization established in by the United Nations Convention on the. International Union for Conservation of Nature.   The purpose is to agree on safeguards and operating procedures for deep-sea mining, especially in the high seas. Under international jurisdiction, the high seas represent roughly two .

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Additional Physical Format: Online version: Post, Alexandra Merle. Deepsea mining and the law of the sea. The Hague ; Boston: M. Nijhoff Publishers ; Hingham, MA. • Deep-sea mining is the process of retrieving mineral deposits from the deep sea – the area of the ocean below m.

• Depleting terrestrial deposits and rising demand for metals are stimulating interest in the deep sea, with commercial mining imminent. • The scraping of the sea floor and pollution from mining processes can wipe out entire species – many yet to be discovered.

Deep-sea mining consists of prospecting for and then mining mineral deposits below a depth of meters. It is this depth that lends some proponents of deep-sea mining to claim the environmental.

If managed effectively, in accordance with the rule of law as set out in the Convention, deep sea mining has the potential to contribute to the realization of Sustainable Development G particularly for landlocked and geographically disadvantaged States, and small island developing States that are heavily reliant on the ocean and its.

“Mining in the deep sea is an extremely technical and difficult thing to do,” Dr Kirsten Thompson, a marine biologist at the University of Exeter, told The New Economy.

“The conditions at depths such as 4,m are extreme, with high pressure, low temperatures and darkness. The international legal framework for deep sea mining: a primer In a radical departure from the tradition of open access and freedom of the high seas, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) declared the seabed area beyond national jurisdiction (the Area) and its mineral resources as the “common heritage of mankind.

For the mining industry, technological advances have made the world’s oceans the new frontier. Both companies and governments have started exploration and even tout deep-sea mining as a safer alternative to the problems caused by mineral extraction.

But they do so in the absence of any scientific consensus on the long-term impacts of deep-sea mining. Explains Dr. G.A. Ramadass, head of the Deep Sea Technologies Group, National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, “We have developed and demonstrated the mining.

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents like these are targeted for mining. (Image: NSF/NOAA, Jason) Weighing the risks. Given the role of the deep-sea and the vulnerability of species and ecosystems to long-term and potentially irreversible damage, it is important that we first understand the risks before deciding whether, and under what conditions, deep-sea mining could be permitted to occur.

Ina test of deep-sea mining methods was carried out in the waters off Japan. Inthe world’s first commercial deep-sea mine is due to open off Papua New Guinea. And there’s growing interest in mining vast swathes of open ocean, known as the high seas, that.

A comprehensive study of transfer of technology for deep sea-bed mining under the Law of the Sea Convention and the controversies that have arisen about it. The book also discusses transfer of technology in international law in general and examines developments since.

In July, Greenpeace called for an immediate moratorium on deep sea mining to learn more about its potential impact on deep sea ecosystems, but the ISA has rejected such a proposal. The volume brings together information and data for researchers, contractors, mining companies, regulators, and NGOs working in the field of deep-sea mining.

Section 1 highlights the various environmental issues and discusses methods and approaches that can help in developing environmentally sustainable deep-sea mining. The deep sea-bed mining regime of the Convention adopted by the Conference is purely contractual in character.

The United States and other non-parties do. In January this year, the managing director of Papua New Guinea’s Mineral Resources Authority declared that the proposal to develop what had once been touted as the world’s first deep-sea mine would ‘not get off the ground’. This was a far cry from the optimism that surrounded the grant of the first seabed exploration licence to Nautilus Minerals Ltd, a company formerly listed on the.

Deep-Sea Mining May Have Deep Economic, Environmental Impacts. A new report supports the creation of a compensation fund for nations that rely on terrestrial mining. However, the still ongoing international debate on the Convention I s regime to govern deep-sea mining reveals that the central economic problems involved are far from being defi- nitely settled.

In view of the importance of this issue, the Kiel Institute of World Economics launched in a major research project on allocational and Reviews: 1. Deep-Sea Mining Law in Indonesia: Challenges and Opportunities. concernin g deep-sea mining has added more chal len g es for.

Ind one sia. Th us, i t is essential for the Indonesian governme nt. Although the United States had been a leader in the international community's effort to develop an overall legal framework for the oceans in the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, deep divisions arose between developing and developed nations over the establishment of an international organization to regulate the exploration of deep sea mining in international waters (Part.

Deep sea mineral exploration is one of the most tightly regulated activities in the ocean. Under international law, exploration, as distinct from marine scientific research (which is open to all States), may only be undertaken under a contract with the International Seabed Authority (ISA), an intergovernmental organization based in Jamaica and established by the United Nations Convention.

Globally, mining companies are eyeing a new source of mineral resources – the seabed. The UN’s International Seabed Authority (ISA) said it aimed to finalise draft regulations covering deep-sea mining by the end of And African countries will want to ensure that they have a say in benefiting from the “new gold rush”.

Get this from a library. Alternatives in deepsea mining: proceedings, Law of the Sea Institute, University of Hawaii, workshop, December, Kaʻu, Hawaii. [Scott Allen; John P Craven; Law of the Sea Institute.;]. Thus, when accepting to sponsor deep sea mining activities, states need to be mindful of the additional disciplines imposed by international investment law.

The seabed beyond national jurisdiction (named as the “Area” by UNCLOS) is known to contain valuable mineral resources including copper, nickel, zinc and rare earth metals which have.

Deep Sea Mining: The Basics Overview The deepest parts of the world’s ocean feature ecosystems found nowhere else on Earth. They provide habitats for multitudes of species, many yet to be named. In these vast, lightless regions are also found deposits of valuable minerals in rich concentrations.

This fact sheet was updated on June 6,to reflect updated information on deep-sea mining exploration claims and the timetable for developing International Seabed Authority seabed mining rules.

It was previously updated on April 3,to correct several data points regarding the status of seabed mining and the rules being developed. Parianos emphasized that the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which created the International Seabed Authority, promised “to ensure effective protection for the marine environment” from.

The U.N.'s Law of the Sea covers deep sea mining, and inPresident Bill Clinton signed the treaty. But it was dead on arrival in the Senate, despite. The mining of the deep sea is a contentious issue and has been the subject of a number of international law treaties. The first of these was the Law of the Sea Convention which was the first real attempt to create a system of regulation of the mining of deep seas on a global scale.

Transfer of Technology for Deep Sea-Bed Mining:The Law of the Sea Convention and Beyond (Publications on Ocean Development Vol 25) [Li, Yuwen] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Transfer of Technology for Deep Sea-Bed Mining:The Law of the Sea Convention and Beyond (Publications on Ocean Development Vol 25).

A new publication on the impacts of deep-seabed mining by 13 prominent deep-sea biologists, led by University of Hawai'i at Mānoa oceanography professor Craig Smith, seeks to dispel scientific misconceptions that have led to miscalculations of the likely effects of commercial operations to extract minerals from the seabed.

Interest in deep-sea mining for copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese and other valuable metals has grown substantially in the last decade, and mining is anticipated to begin soon in some areas. But a new study argues that deep-sea mining poses significant risks not only to the area immediately surrounding mining, but also to the water hundreds to thousands of feet above the seafloor.

In short, actual mining of deep-ocean seabed mineral resources is still some years away. However, for decades now, seabed mining has been happening in coastal waters in depths of up to m.

If sea mining is allowed ‘Different methods are required for the different SMS, nodules and crusts,’ Hein said. ‘Four or five methods have been developed.